PostSharp.ILXAMLCommand
Open sandboxFocusImprove this doc

Command

In the GUI applications built using MVVM pattern, it's common for the view model class to define commands that can be performed by the user in the associated XAML view. These commands are implemented as nested classes of the view model classes, and require a lot of boilerplate code.

The CommandAttribute aspect allows you to implement commands in your view model classes without adding nested classes, with greatly reduces boilerplate code. The aspect also integrates with the NotifyPropertyChangedAttribute aspect, which makes it much easier to implement the CanExecute logic.

Creating a simple command

To add a command named LoadContactsList to your view model class

  1. Implement the command logic in the ExecuteLoadContactsList method in your view model class. This method will be the equivalent to the <xref:System.Windows.Input.ICommand.Execute(System.Object)> method.

    Optionally, the Execute method can have one parameter of any type, which becomes the command parameter.

  2. Add a LoadContactsListCommand property to your view model class and mark it with the CommandAttribute attribute. The property must be of type ICommand and have both a getter and a setter.

Example

The following code snippet defines a dependency property named LoadContactsList.

using System.Collections.ObjectModel;
using System.Windows.Input;
using PostSharp.Patterns.Model;
using PostSharp.Patterns.Xaml;

namespace Samples.Xaml
{
    [NotifyPropertyChanged]
    public class ContactsListViewModel
    {
        #region LoadContactsList

        [Command]
        public ICommand LoadContactsListCommand { get; private set; }

        public void ExecuteLoadContactsList()
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region CreateContact

        [Command]
        public ICommand CreateContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanExecuteCreateContact
        {
            get
            {
                bool canCreateContact = true;
                // ...
                return canCreateContact;
            }
        }

        public void ExecuteCreateContact()
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region DeleteContact

        [Command]
        public ICommand DeleteContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanExecuteDeleteContact(int contactId)
        {
            bool canDeleteContact = true;
            // ...
            return canDeleteContact;
        }

        public void ExecuteDeleteContact(int contactId)
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region UpdateContact

        [Command(ExecuteMethod = nameof(UpdateContact), CanExecuteMethod = nameof(CanUpdate))]
        public ICommand UpdateContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanUpdate(object newData)
        {
            bool canUpdate = true;
            // ...
            return canUpdate;
        }

        public void UpdateContact(object newData)
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        public ObservableCollection<Contact> AllContacts { get; set; }

        /*  LoadContactList impl.
            this.AllContacts = new ObservableCollection<Contact>
            {
                new Contact { Id = 1, FullName = "Contact1", Email = "Email1", Notes = "Notes1", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"},
                new Contact { Id = 2, FullName = "Contact2", Email = "Email2", Notes = "Notes2", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"},
                new Contact { Id = 3, FullName = "Contact3", Email = "Email3", Notes = "Notes3", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"}
            };
        */
    }
}

After adding a new command to your view model class you can bind it to a UI control in your XAML code.

<Window x:Class="Samples.Xaml.MainWindow"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        xmlns:local="clr-namespace:Samples.Xaml"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        Title="MainWindow" Height="462" Width="816">
    <Grid>
        <!-- #region LoadContactsList --> 
        <Button x:Name="LoadButton" Content="Load contacts" Command="{Binding LoadContactsListCommand}"
            HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="361,10,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="85" Height="20"/>
        <!-- #endregion -->
        <Button x:Name="CreateButton" Content="Create contact" Command="{Binding CreateContactCommand}" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="361,35,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="84" Height="20"/>
        <Button x:Name="DeleteButton" Content="Delete contact" Command="{Binding DeleteContactCommand}" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="361,60,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="86" Height="20"/>
        <local:ContactCard DataContext="{Binding SelectedValue, ElementName=dataGrid}" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="10,10,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Top" Background="Bisque"/>
        <DataGrid x:Name="ContactsDataGrid"
                  HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="10,152,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Top" Height="248" Width="320" AutoGenerateColumns="False">
            <DataGrid.Columns>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Id}" ClipboardContentBinding="{x:Null}" Header="Id"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding FullName}" ClipboardContentBinding="{x:Null}" Header="Name"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Email}" ClipboardContentBinding="{x:Null}" Header="Email"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding NOtes}" ClipboardContentBinding="{x:Null}" Header="Notes"/>
            </DataGrid.Columns>
        </DataGrid>
        <!-- #region ContactCard bindings -->
        <local:ContactCard FullName="{Binding ContactName}" Phone="{Binding ContactPhone}" Email="{Binding ContactEmail}" Notes="{Binding ContactNotes}"
                           x:Name="CurrentContactCard" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="478,270,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Top" Background="Bisque"/>
        <!-- #endregion -->
        <TextBox x:Name="NameTextBox" Text="{Binding ContactName}" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Height="23" Margin="678,165,0,0" TextWrapping="Wrap" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="120"/>
        <TextBox x:Name="EmailTextBox" Text="{Binding ContactEmail}" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Height="23" Margin="678,193,0,0" TextWrapping="Wrap" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="120"/>
        <TextBox x:Name="NotesTextBox" Text="{Binding ContactNotes}" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Height="23" Margin="678,221,0,0" TextWrapping="Wrap" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="120"/>
        <Label Content="Name" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="620,162,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Top"/>
        <Label Content="Email" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="620,193,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Top" RenderTransformOrigin="0.474,-0.077"/>
        <Label Content="Notes" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="620,221,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Top"/>
    </Grid>
</Window>

Determining whether your command can be executed

The UI controls in the GUI application can be enabled or disabled based on what actions are available to the user in the current state of the application. This feature is usually implemented by the CanExecute(Object) method.

The CommandAttribute aspect provides a clean way to determine the availability of the actions. For each command in your view model class, you can implement a CanExecute property or method that validates whether this command can be currently executed.

Adding a CanExecute property

To allow the view to determine the availability of the CreateContact command, simply add a public bool property named CanExecuteCreateContact to the same class.

using System.Collections.ObjectModel;
using System.Windows.Input;
using PostSharp.Patterns.Model;
using PostSharp.Patterns.Xaml;

namespace Samples.Xaml
{
    [NotifyPropertyChanged]
    public class ContactsListViewModel
    {
        #region LoadContactsList

        [Command]
        public ICommand LoadContactsListCommand { get; private set; }

        public void ExecuteLoadContactsList()
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region CreateContact

        [Command]
        public ICommand CreateContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanExecuteCreateContact
        {
            get
            {
                bool canCreateContact = true;
                // ...
                return canCreateContact;
            }
        }

        public void ExecuteCreateContact()
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region DeleteContact

        [Command]
        public ICommand DeleteContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanExecuteDeleteContact(int contactId)
        {
            bool canDeleteContact = true;
            // ...
            return canDeleteContact;
        }

        public void ExecuteDeleteContact(int contactId)
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region UpdateContact

        [Command(ExecuteMethod = nameof(UpdateContact), CanExecuteMethod = nameof(CanUpdate))]
        public ICommand UpdateContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanUpdate(object newData)
        {
            bool canUpdate = true;
            // ...
            return canUpdate;
        }

        public void UpdateContact(object newData)
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        public ObservableCollection<Contact> AllContacts { get; set; }

        /*  LoadContactList impl.
            this.AllContacts = new ObservableCollection<Contact>
            {
                new Contact { Id = 1, FullName = "Contact1", Email = "Email1", Notes = "Notes1", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"},
                new Contact { Id = 2, FullName = "Contact2", Email = "Email2", Notes = "Notes2", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"},
                new Contact { Id = 3, FullName = "Contact3", Email = "Email3", Notes = "Notes3", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"}
            };
        */
    }
}

The CanExecute properties associated with the commands support the NotifyPropertyChangedAttribute aspect. Therefore, if you add the NotifyPropertyChangedAttribute aspect to the view model class, the UI will be notified of changes in the CanExecute properties.

Adding a CanExecute method

A limitation of the CanExecute is that they cannot depend on the input argument of the command. For example, with the DeleteContact command, you may want to validate whether the current user has the permission to delete the currently selected contact. If your availability logic depends on the input argument, you must use a CanExecute method instead of a property.

To allow the UI to determine the availability of the DeleteContact command, add a CanExecuteDeleteContact method to the view model class. The method must have one parameter and return a bool value. The parameter type must be assignable from the type of the command's input argument.

using System.Collections.ObjectModel;
using System.Windows.Input;
using PostSharp.Patterns.Model;
using PostSharp.Patterns.Xaml;

namespace Samples.Xaml
{
    [NotifyPropertyChanged]
    public class ContactsListViewModel
    {
        #region LoadContactsList

        [Command]
        public ICommand LoadContactsListCommand { get; private set; }

        public void ExecuteLoadContactsList()
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region CreateContact

        [Command]
        public ICommand CreateContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanExecuteCreateContact
        {
            get
            {
                bool canCreateContact = true;
                // ...
                return canCreateContact;
            }
        }

        public void ExecuteCreateContact()
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region DeleteContact

        [Command]
        public ICommand DeleteContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanExecuteDeleteContact(int contactId)
        {
            bool canDeleteContact = true;
            // ...
            return canDeleteContact;
        }

        public void ExecuteDeleteContact(int contactId)
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region UpdateContact

        [Command(ExecuteMethod = nameof(UpdateContact), CanExecuteMethod = nameof(CanUpdate))]
        public ICommand UpdateContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanUpdate(object newData)
        {
            bool canUpdate = true;
            // ...
            return canUpdate;
        }

        public void UpdateContact(object newData)
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        public ObservableCollection<Contact> AllContacts { get; set; }

        /*  LoadContactList impl.
            this.AllContacts = new ObservableCollection<Contact>
            {
                new Contact { Id = 1, FullName = "Contact1", Email = "Email1", Notes = "Notes1", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"},
                new Contact { Id = 2, FullName = "Contact2", Email = "Email2", Notes = "Notes2", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"},
                new Contact { Id = 3, FullName = "Contact3", Email = "Email3", Notes = "Notes3", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"}
            };
        */
    }
}

Overriding naming conventions

The CommandAttribute aspect follows a predefined naming convention when looking for methods and properties associated with the command in your view model class. You can override the naming convention and choose your own member names by setting properties on the CommandAttribute. The following table shows the default naming convention and the properties used to override member names.

Command pattern's naming conventions

Member kind Default name Example Override property
Command property CommandName -or- CommandName Command UpdateContact -or- UpdateContactCommand N/A
Execute method Execute CommandName ExecuteUpdateContact ExecuteMethod
CanExecute method CanExecute CommandName CanExecuteUpdateContact CanExecuteMethod
CanExecute property CanExecute CommandName CanExecuteUpdateContact CanExecuteProperty

The following examples shows a command that does not respect naming conventions.

using System.Collections.ObjectModel;
using System.Windows.Input;
using PostSharp.Patterns.Model;
using PostSharp.Patterns.Xaml;

namespace Samples.Xaml
{
    [NotifyPropertyChanged]
    public class ContactsListViewModel
    {
        #region LoadContactsList

        [Command]
        public ICommand LoadContactsListCommand { get; private set; }

        public void ExecuteLoadContactsList()
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region CreateContact

        [Command]
        public ICommand CreateContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanExecuteCreateContact
        {
            get
            {
                bool canCreateContact = true;
                // ...
                return canCreateContact;
            }
        }

        public void ExecuteCreateContact()
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region DeleteContact

        [Command]
        public ICommand DeleteContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanExecuteDeleteContact(int contactId)
        {
            bool canDeleteContact = true;
            // ...
            return canDeleteContact;
        }

        public void ExecuteDeleteContact(int contactId)
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        #region UpdateContact

        [Command(ExecuteMethod = nameof(UpdateContact), CanExecuteMethod = nameof(CanUpdate))]
        public ICommand UpdateContactCommand { get; private set; }

        public bool CanUpdate(object newData)
        {
            bool canUpdate = true;
            // ...
            return canUpdate;
        }

        public void UpdateContact(object newData)
        {
            // ...
        }

        #endregion

        public ObservableCollection<Contact> AllContacts { get; set; }

        /*  LoadContactList impl.
            this.AllContacts = new ObservableCollection<Contact>
            {
                new Contact { Id = 1, FullName = "Contact1", Email = "Email1", Notes = "Notes1", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"},
                new Contact { Id = 2, FullName = "Contact2", Email = "Email2", Notes = "Notes2", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"},
                new Contact { Id = 3, FullName = "Contact3", Email = "Email3", Notes = "Notes3", PictureUrl = "/user1.jpg"}
            };
        */
    }
}

See Also

Reference

CommandAttribute
ICommand
Other Resources

INotifyPropertyChanged